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What actually is honey?

The most famous and most important bee product has been consumed for hundreds of years. Honey is used to sweeten tea, honey gingerbread, or a teaspoon of honey is put into milk to fall asleep more peacefully. While in the past honey was considered rather a delicious food, after World War II various tests of its healing effects began. Today we know for sure when honey can bring relief and help us. And we also know how great a helper it is in skin care.

What actually is honey?

„Honey is a medicine“1 Bohuslav Handl, M.D. writes in his book. The most famous and most important bee product has been consumed for hundreds of years. Honey is used to sweeten tea, honey gingerbread, or a teaspoon of honey is put into milk to fall asleep more peacefully. While in the past honey was considered rather a delicious food, after World War II various tests of its healing effects began. Today we know for sure when honey can bring relief and help us. And we also know how great a helper it is in skin care.

How do bees produce honey?

Foraging bees bring nectar and honeydew in their honey sacs into the hive. To fill the pinhead-sized honey sac, a bee must visit about 1000 flowers. Sweet drops of nectar or honeydew are then transferred to worker bees in the hive, who store it in cells. Other bees suck it up again and store it in other cells, whereupon each bee adds the necessary enzymes and amino acids from its glands to the nectar, whereby its enrichment and breaking down into simple sugars happens.

Jak včely vyrábí med, včela na plástu, pleva

Simultaneously with repeated ingestion of nectar and its regurgitation into honeycombs, water evaporates. When the nectar is sufficiently concentrated by this process (about 30 % water), it is deposited in a cell in the honeycomb. Water continues to evaporate from the immature honey in the cells – hive bees accelerate this process by fluttering their wings intensively to create air circulation that makes water evaporate from honey more easily. In the honeycomb, the honey is gradually maturing and acquiring the consistency we know; this process takes several days.

Due to the large amount of evaporated water, bees must collect up to five times the nectar for a certain amount of honey! When the moisture of honey reaches about 17%, it is capped in the cells. Honey stored and preserved in this way serves the bees as a food source and allows them to survive the winter season. The average bee colony consumes about 15-20 kg of honey for one winter.

Melliferous plants

The plants that produce large amounts of nectar collected by honeybees are called melliferous plants. Among trees, these include, for example, linden and acacia, among plants lavender and buckwheat. Bees however, unlike farmers, also appreciate wild plants, such as goldenrods. White melilot and oregano abound with an extraordinary amount of nectar; five hundred kilograms of honey can be obtained from one hectare of area with these plants.

Medonosné rostliny, včela na levanduli, pleva

And why actually do plants produce nectar? They attract this way their pollinators - bees, bumblebees, wasps, beetles, etc., which distribute pollen on their bodies and thus provide pollination to the plants in return for their life-giving fluid.

Floral honey

Floral honey contains the early spring flow from blossoms of fruit trees, rape, and meadow flowers of all kinds. Thanks to the content of glucose and fructose, it is very easy to digest. It contains pollen grains from various plants and a whole range of natural substances with stimulating effects2, which we name below.

For one kilogram of honey, bees must visit several million flowers and fly a distance a total of about 150,000 kilometres. This is the same distance as if they flew four times around the Earth.

You may have already encountered the term monofloral honey – it is honey from one type of nectar, i.e., from one plant. Worker bees collect nectar from the flowers of one species of plant until they have exhausted the supply of those flowers in the vicinity of the beehive. As a result, a beekeeper can obtain monofloral honey of various kinds, such as linden honey, acacia honey, or buckwheat honey. You will come across the production of monofloral honey especially with more experienced beekeepers, because this requires a good knowledge of the sources of the flow and a larger number of bee colonies. In addition to the production of monofloral honey, the beekeeper must spend some extra work. Frequent harvesting of even smaller amounts of honey is necessary to clean the honey chambers before the expected flow.

Mšice vytvářející medovici
Aphid making honeydew, photo: Wikimedia Commons author: Amada44, CC BY 4.0;

Honeydew honey

Honey originates also from honeydew, i.e., liquid exudates of aphids and worms. This insect feeds on plant juices, mainly composed of water and sugar - their excess is then excreted and left on leaves and branches of trees. Honeybees find abundant amounts of honeydew mainly on spruce and fir trees. And just according to the origin of the basic raw material, we distinguish between floral and honeydew honey.

You can recognize honeydew honey by the darker colour caused by plant pigments contained in the sap of woody plants. Compared to floral honey, honeydew honey contains more fructose, dextrins, flavonoids, and more minerals and trace elements. Honeydew honey has a delicious taste and an unusual scent, so it is very popular.

Composition of honey

„Honey is interesting in that, except selenium, it contains almost all trace minerals with their beneficial effect. Many people buy mineral products expensively in pharmacies or specialized stores. They have no idea that they can buy them much cheaper in the form of honey and comprehensively in an ideal composition.“3

In addition to water (about 15 to 20%), simple sugars fructose and glucose (together about 50 to 70 %) honey contains 13 amino acids including the essentials, vegetable proteins from plant nectar, and animal proteins from bee pharyngeal glands.

We find in it a number of enzymes important for renewal of the immune system, vitamins (especially provitamin A, vitamins of B, C, D, H, K, P groups) and mineral substances. It also contains trace elements, such as calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulphur, iron, silicon, manganese, barium, nickel, silver, zinc, tungsten, molybdenum, chromium, cobalt, vanadium, arsenic, strontium, titanium, platinum, iodine, iridium, palladium, and others.

In honey, we can find a number of acids – formic, lactic, acetic, citric, oxalic. In addition, they contain antibacterial agents, pigments carotenes, flavins, chlorophyll, melanin and pollen grains.

Our body can digest all the substances that honey contains.4

Why does honey solidify?

Crystallization or solidification of honey is a natural property of honey during its maturation. Crystallized honey retains all the good properties of honey and is not degraded in any way. The rate of crystallization of honey depends on the amount of glucose. Most glucose is contained in floral honeys, so they begin to solidify within a few weeks of extraction.

The exception is pure acacia honey, which does not crystallize at all. Honeydew honey does not crystallize until several months later. You can return honey to its original fluidity by gentle heating it in a water bath with a maximum temperature of 40 °C.

rozdíly mezi čerstvým, krystalizovaným a pastovaným medem
Flower honey (from left): freshly extracted, crystallized and creamed.

The so-called creamed honey can also be made from floral and honeydew honey. It is honey processed by a specific mixing technology during the crystallization process. This way it is created honey with a fine creamy consistency, which is easy to spread and excellent to handle.


Healing powers of honey

Honey is recommended as part of traditional folk medicine in the following cases:

  1. „liver diseases – especially viral inflammation of the liver, gallbladder inflammation, and in case of damage to liver tissue by chemical drugs,

  2. honey usage brings good results in the treatment of gastric and duodenal ulcers,

  3. it is very effective in the treatment of heart diseases and high blood pressure,

  4. juice of mixed onion and honey helps in cases of sclerosis. We can also treat with it upper respiratory tract infections,

  5. a glass of warm milk with honey not only relieves cough, but also calms and brings good sleep,

  6. syrup from onion, garlic, and honey is even more efficient (Put cut slices alternately into a glass and pour liquid honey over them. Close the glass, place it in a warm place and after 6–8 hours you can drink the prepared juice.),

  7. in many cases, honey therapy has better results than conventional drugs, for example, in diarrhoea, salmonellosis, or shingles,

  8. what is milk in the diet of the infants, this is honey in the diet of the elderly,

  9. brings improvements to intestinal transit problems, calms,

  10. prevents worsening of arteriosclerosis,

  11. improves muscle function, supports liver function.

  12. Atherosclerosis is caused by the deposition of cholesterol on the inner sides of arteries and veins. Thanks to its high content of antioxidants, honey can prevent formation of cholesterol.

  13. Honey also improves blood circulation and blood supply to the coronary arteries. If simple sugars, glucose and fructose are in excess in blood, they are stored in muscles and in the liver as glycogens. This is mainly important for the liver, which in the presence of fruit sugar - fructose - can increase glycogen production by up to 18 %.

  14. Honey contains trace minerals absorbable for human body, iron and copper, which makes it suitable for the treatment of childhood anaemia, because it increases levels of haemoglobin,

  15. honey is also recommended in neurasthenic manifestations in children; the sedative effect of honey acts to improve these conditions,

  16. honey contributes to the dilation of the coronary arteries and to better blood supply to the heart muscle, supplies it with necessary nutrients such as grape sugar, vitamins, especially B and C, trace elements potassium and magnesium,

  17. honey has proven very well in postoperative conditions. External and internal wounds after surgeries became bacteriologically sterile within a few days and the external ones get healed.

  18. Honey stimulates tissue regeneration and reduces scarring of healed wounds,

  19. honey is part of many medicines that have been clinically tested and approved for sale in pharmacies or specialist shops,

  20. honey can cause allergies in some people, especially honey imported from Asia, Argentina, Africa, or honey of unknown origin,

  21. a spoonful of honey in the morning will help us with stomach ulcers, constipation or diarrhoea, liver and gallbladder diseases, long-term inflammation of the stomach or lining of the large intestine, you can increase its efficiency by adding propolis tincture into it,

  22. honey does not cause fermentation in the digestive tract, flatulence, or pain; therefore, it is also suitable for infants. (However, there are opinions that honey is not to be administered to children under two years of age.),

  23. the presence of phosphorus and calcium counteracts the formation of rickets and magnesium has a calming effect. A spoonful of honey a day reduces production of gastric juices,

  24. dark honey is used against iron deficiency,

  25. a spoonful of honey on an empty stomach in the morning and a spoonful before bed are used daily for irritated nerves,

  26. in case of constipation, a teaspoon of honey is used before bed,

  27. in heart diseases, it is recommended to take a teaspoon of honey together with lemon juice once a day,

  28. the use of honey dilates blood vessels, which is very important in the treatment of high blood pressure, heart, and brain problems,

  29. acts against bed-wetting (nocturia) of children,

  30. in case of stomach problems, it is recommended to drink honey with soy or almond milk, also acts positively in intestinal and liver diseases,

  31. in severe cough, if the cough starts to be treated with honey syrup at an early stage,

  32. honey solution has proven itself and is generally recommended in intoxications,

  33. honey is detoxifying (it rids the body of toxic substances and at the same time has an anti-inflammatory effect),

  34. supplies body with energy shortly after having been used. The high content of invert sugars in honey (60-70%) makes honey an ideal energy store and human body can utilize them very quickly to increase physical and mental performance. Therefore, it is recommended for convalescence, generally when the body is weakened, but especially in old age,

  35. in combination with pollen, it treats anaemia more effectively,

  36. is diuretic and slightly laxative,

  37. promotes digestion, absorption, and better utilization of food,

  38. supports better intake of calcium to the body from ingested foods,

  39. strengthens the nervous system and psyche,

  40. reduces the toxic effects of coffee, cigarettes, alcohol, and strong tea,

  41. a teaspoon of honey a day is administered to strengthen the immune system, preferably in the morning about 20-30 minutes before a meal or in the evening before bed,

  42. the power of bee honey will stop not only the infection but also ageing and anchors you when you are depressed. Floral honey does not burden digestion, forest (honeydew) honey does not burden the kidneys.“5

Honey is characterized by antibacterial activity, which can manifest itself in two forms: bacteriostatic (prevents the growth and reproduction of bacteria) and bacteriocidal (destroys bacteria). Nevertheless, honey does not destroy bifidobacteria, for example. 6

použití a účinky medu

One teaspoon of honey will bring pleasant sleep and it can calm down a person perfectly. You may ask, how is this possible when we said above that thanks to its composition, honey supplies energy? It is a bit of a mystery and scientists have not yet agreed on a clear conclusion, so this fact has not yet been scientifically confirmed or refuted.

However, we know from our own experience that a larger amount of honey spread on bread in the morning supplies energy, while a teaspoon of honey before bed with its pleasant sweetness induces peace and lulls us beautifully.


Honey in home cosmetics

Honey should not be missing in any household, not only at Christmas before the preparation of honey gingerbread. The wonderful properties of honey are increasingly used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, so you can use honey at home in both the kitchen and the bathroom. Honey is not only a tasty sweetener, but its great properties are beneficial to us for both indoor and outdoor use.

Med v kosmetice, med na lžičce

„Honey is known to have an emollient and moisturising effect, which is especially appreciated in cold, rainy, and freezing weather, but also during subsequent stay in dry or heated rooms. Honey binds moisture perfectly, contains nutrients, has cleansing and antibacterial effects, and thus has a healing effect and soothes the skin.

In addition, honey beautifully refreshes the skin, soothes irritation, tones, and nourishes. Bee honey contains monosaccharides, grape sugar - glucose and fruit sugar - fructose, vitamins, minerals, acids, trace elements, and other substances. These have excellent effects on internal health and external beauty.“7

Honey achieves wonderful results with a variety of dermatological problems, can smooth wrinkles, treat skin inflammation, and rejuvenate. It has a beneficial effect against eczemas, psoriasis, cold sores, and other oral diseases. 8

Honey and ancient history

People have used honey since ancient times, and not just for consumption. Stories go that due to its beautifying effects, it was also used by well-known Egyptian beauties Nefertiti, Cleopatra, and the wife of the Roman emperor Nero - Poppaea.

The ancient Egyptians also used honey to heal wounds, and because honey was very expensive and rare, they sacrificed it to gods and rare animals.

The ancient Greeks put in honey the corpse of the famous commander Alexander the Great, the king of Macedonia, so that his remains could endure the long journey to his homeland. 9

Tips for beautification with honey according to Štefan Demeter10

Honey face mask

Mix 2 teaspoons of honey with 2 teaspoons of cream. Mix the whole mixture to a smooth consistency, apply to cleansed skin and leave on for 20 minutes. Then wash thoroughly.

Facial scrub

Domácí kosmetika s medem, medová pleťová maska

Mix 10 g of finely ground oatmeal with 2 teaspoons of honey. Apply the resulting mixture to clean and moistened skin, gently massage for 2-3 minutes with circular motions and then wash with lukewarm water.

You can leave the mixture to act for 10 minutes after application; it will serve as a face mask and peeling in one.

Body scrub

Mix a few tablespoons of liquid honey with a drop of your favourite essential oil and crushed oatmeal or semolina. Choose the oil mainly according to the needs of the skin because it will be very effective in peeling. Lemon oil, for example, lightens the complexion, chestnut contracts dilated veins, and thyme slows down sebum production.

Then scrub properly the whole body with the mixture during the shower. After the use of the peeling, treat the skin with quality body lotion.

Honey bath

Domácí kosmetika s medem, medová koupel

Mix about 10 tablespoons of honey in half a litre of hot whole milk and pour into the prepared bath. Relax in the bath for 30 minutes, during which time the skin absorbs nutrients, softens, and brightens itself. Neither water nor honey milk, however, should exceed 40 °C.

Honey mask for silk lips

Honey balm has an excellent effect on dry and cracked lips - just use clean and undiluted honey to cover your lips. Let it act for at least 10 minutes and even longer, until you lick it off.

Our tip: You can give your lips a gentle peeling with crystallized honey at the same time.

Honey helps with medical problems

People have consumed honey for thousands of years to get well and help themselves, but current medicine and natural healing do not pay proper attention to honey, the attention it would certainly deserve. It can significantly help with a number of health problems without adverse effects. There are dozens of syrups, medicines and strengthening teas with honey, as well as a variety of recipes where you can apply honey. Here are just the most common:

Convalescence: Honey helps in convalescence after various diseases. A teaspoon of honey mixed in a glass of milk every day will help to quickly restore normal muscle function, especially the heart. It has a calming effect on the nervous system.11

Insomnia: To fall asleep more easily, a number of people use drugs that irritate their stomachs in the long run. It is healthier to use a teaspoon of honey before bed, which soothes the nervous system, improves the mood, and induces a calm sleep. A teaspoon of honey can be stirred in a cup of lukewarm milk. It can be applied against insomnia not only to the elderly, but also to children.12

Tonsilitis: 1 teaspoon of honey, preferably crystallized, every 3 hours. Honey must be kept in the oral cavity as long as possible so that it can be gradually absorbed by the mucous membranes and so that its antibacterial effect can be exerted. The daily dose for an adult is 100–120 g, for a child it is 1–2 g of honey per 1 kg of the child´s weight. To increase efficacy, mix honey with few drops of propolis tincture. In the case of purulent forms of disease, gargling is recommended with a 20% solution of honey to which 1 teaspoon (30 drops) of propolis tincture has been added, to strengthen the effect of the honey therapy. During the second and next sip of gargling, you can swallow the content.13

Gastric ulcers: Honey is effective against stomach ulcers caused by gastric acidity because it reduces the secretion of gastric juices by half. For quick help, one spoonful of honey is used in the morning on an empty stomach.14

Dermal diseases: Smear the affected areas with honey; if the areas can be covered or wrapped, wrap them, and leave to act overnight. Inflammatory processes can be alleviated by adding few drops of propolis tincture to honey.15

Healthy heart: Honey contains acetylcholine that helps to transmit nerve impulses throughout the body. Use 2–3 teaspoons of honey before bed for 2–3 weeks. Measure your blood pressure before and after the treatment - the pulse will be lower and more stable.16

Cough: A glass of warm milk with honey or syrup of onion, garlic, and honey will relieve cough. Pour liquid honey over sliced onion and garlic, close the glass and after six hours you can drink the juice created.17

Irritated nerves and restlessness: Honey is recommended to soothe irritated nerves in a dose of one spoonful a day in the morning on an empty stomach and one spoonful before bed. Thanks to the magnesium content, honey has a significant calming effect.18

Bedsores and burns: Honey has an extremely positive effect on healing of surface wounds, bedsores, but also burns. By containing only 18% water, it acts as bio-bandage. It prevents formation of dry blemishes and cracking of the skin in the affected areas. Honey supports flushing out impurities from the wound. On its surface, there is formed hydrogen peroxide from honey and white blood cells, which disinfects the wound. Antibacterial substances contained in honey, in turn, prevent airborne bacteria from invading diseased cells, and the high content of glucose and fructose supports regeneration of the cells and growth of new skin cells. Healing of damaged skin is thus greatly accelerated; some sources state that healing is accelerated by 4-5 days.19

Blood pigment deficiency: Dark forest/honeydew honey is recommended against haemoglobin deficiency. It has the most minerals, it also contains iron and the above-mentioned magnesium. Children who regularly drank milk with added honey, gained a much better blood count, their red blood cell count rising by about 10 %.20

Chronic fatigue: Pour lukewarm water over 1 spoonful of honey and 1 teaspoon of cinnamon, mix well and drink several times a day. 21

Cramps and enuresis in children: Children´s cramps are often caused by calcium and phosphorus imbalance, which honey can regulate. For children who have problems with nocturnal enuresis (bed-wetting), it is recommended in the evening to combine a rather solid diet, proper void of the bladder and a tablespoon of honey.22

Influenza: Grate a clove of garlic and mix with liquid honey. Before bed take 1 tablespoon, swallow with boiled and cooled water. Use 3 to 5 days. During a flu epidemic, you bolster the body's natural defenses by regular use of honey (about 70 g a day, which corresponds to the volume of about 4 - 5 tablespoons). The body is then more resistant and any infection is milder.23

Adjustment of bowel movements: Honey can, thanks to one teaspoon of it before bed, adjust the bowel movements - it is used against constipation. Conversely, larger amounts of honey can cause diarrhoea.24

Pregnancy: Pregnant women should consume at least 5 kg of honey during the entire nine months. Thanks to it, the foetus will get substances favourable to its development. The childbirth will be better, the baby will be healthier and more vital, and there will be no danger of rickets. Honeydew honey is recommended.25

Honey as prevention

If you do not use honey to solve specific problems, but rather preventively or as a healthy sweetening option, you should stick to the following amounts:

children under 10 years of age: 1 smaller teaspoon daily
children over 10 years of age: 2 teaspoons daily
adults: 3 to 4 teaspoons daily

Honey consumption

Plástečkový med, med v plástu

Jan Šmíd, an expert on bee products, comments in his book on the sad fact that people in our country consume very little honey, which is replaced with sugar for incomprehensible reasons. On the contrary, the author mentions, what demand for honey is in the western states of Europe and how it is consumed.

„In Western Europe, honey is now very much in demand, but directly in honeycombs, not extracted and stored in containers. The local beekeepers produce small honeycombs, which are very popular on the market. If you chew honey with a comb, as was done regularly in the past even in our country, the smell of wax creates a much softer taste of honey and its familiar honeycomb scent. Another advantage is its nutritional value. We know that honey contains inhibins, substances that prevent the growth and reproduction of pathogenic microbes. Most inhibins are contained in the caps that close honey in the cells. By chewing honeycombs, inhibins dissolve in the saliva and the body gains some kind of protection against infection.“26


1 Czech publication: MUDr. Bohuslav Handl: Včelí produkty v lékařství: Jejich význam při léčení nemocí nervových, žaludečních, reumatických, srdečních, kožních, jater, žlučníku, astma, sklerose aj.; Blansko: Základní organizace včelařů a zdravotní osvěta, 1971, str. 9. Back

2 Czech publication: Ing. Štefan Demeter, CSc.: Apiterapie: Léčení včelími produkty; Vydala Mgr. Andrea Lenochová, Olomouc, 2015, str. 13, 20. Back

3 Czech publication: Ing. Štefan Demeter, CSc.: Apiterapie: Léčení včelími produkty; Vydala Mgr. Andrea Lenochová, Olomouc, 2015, str. 20. Back

4 Czech publication: Ing. Štefan Demeter, CSc.: Apiterapie: Léčení včelími produkty; Vydala Mgr. Andrea Lenochová, Olomouc, 2015, str. 12, 13. Back

5 Czech publication: Ing. Štefan Demeter, CSc.: Apiterapie: Léčení včelími produkty; Vydala Mgr. Andrea Lenochová, Olomouc, 2015, str. 18–20. Back

6 Czech publication: Ing. Štefan Demeter, CSc.: Apiterapie: Léčení včelími produkty; Vydala Mgr. Andrea Lenochová, Olomouc, 2015, str. 12. Back

7 Czech publication: Ing. Štefan Demeter, CSc.: Apiterapie: Léčení včelími produkty; Vydala Mgr. Andrea Lenochová, Olomouc, 2015, str. 36. Back

8 Czech publication: Ing. Štefan Demeter, CSc.: Apiterapie: Léčení včelími produkty; Vydala Mgr. Andrea Lenochová, Olomouc, 2015, str. 9. Back

9 Czech publication: Piotr Socha: Včely; vydalo Nakladatelství Slovart, 2017. Back

10 Czech publication: Ing. Štefan Demeter, CSc.: Apiterapie: Léčení včelími produkty; Vydala Mgr. Andrea Lenochová, Olomouc, 2015, str. 36–38. Back

11 Czech publication: MUDr. Bohuslav Handl: Včelí produkty v lékařství: Jejich význam při léčení nemocí nervových, žaludečních, reumatických, srdečních, kožních, jater, žlučníku, astma, sklerose aj.; Blansko: Základní organizace včelařů a zdravotní osvěta, 1971, str. 5. Back

12 Czech publication: MUDr. Bohuslav Handl: Včelí produkty v lékařství: Jejich význam při léčení nemocí nervových, žaludečních, reumatických, srdečních, kožních, jater, žlučníku, astma, sklerose aj.; Blansko: Základní organizace včelařů a zdravotní osvěta, 1971, str. 5 - 6 Back

13 Czech publication: Ing. Štefan Demeter, CSc.: Apiterapie: Léčení včelími produkty; Vydala Mgr. Andrea Lenochová, Olomouc, 2015, str. 27, 28. Back

14 Czech publication: MUDr. Bohuslav Handl: Včelí produkty v lékařství: Jejich význam při léčení nemocí nervových, žaludečních, reumatických, srdečních, kožních, jater, žlučníku, astma, sklerose aj.; Blansko: Základní organizace včelařů a zdravotní osvěta, 1971, str. 5.Back

15 Czech publication: Ing. Štefan Demeter, CSc.: Apiterapie: Léčení včelími produkty; Vydala Mgr. Andrea Lenochová, Olomouc, 2015, str. 30. Back

16 Czech publication: Ing. Štefan Demeter, CSc.: Apiterapie: Léčení včelími produkty; Vydala Mgr. Andrea Lenochová, Olomouc, 2015, str. 27. Back

17 Czech publication: Ing. Štefan Demeter, CSc.: Apiterapie: Léčení včelími produkty; Vydala Mgr. Andrea Lenochová, Olomouc, 2015, str. 18. Back

18 Czech publication: Ing. Štefan Demeter, CSc.: Apiterapie: Léčení včelími produkty; Vydala Mgr. Andrea Lenochová, Olomouc, 2015, str. 19. Back

19 Czech publication: Ing. Štefan Demeter, CSc.: Apiterapie: Léčení včelími produkty; Vydala Mgr. Andrea Lenochová, Olomouc, 2015, str. 28. Back

20 Czech publication: MUDr. Bohuslav Handl: Včelí produkty v lékařství: Jejich význam při léčení nemocí nervových, žaludečních, reumatických, srdečních, kožních, jater, žlučníku, astma, sklerose aj.; Blansko: Základní organizace včelařů a zdravotní osvěta, 1971, str. 6. Back

21 Czech publication: Ing. Štefan Demeter, CSc.: Apiterapie: Léčení včelími produkty; Vydala Mgr. Andrea Lenochová, Olomouc, 2015, str. 29. Back

22 Czech publication: MUDr. Bohuslav Handl: Včelí produkty v lékařství: Jejich význam při léčení nemocí nervových, žaludečních, reumatických, srdečních, kožních, jater, žlučníku, astma, sklerose aj.; Blansko: Základní organizace včelařů a zdravotní osvěta, 1971, str. 6. Back

23 Czech publication: Ing. Štefan Demeter, CSc.: Apiterapie: Léčení včelími produkty; Vydala Mgr. Andrea Lenochová, Olomouc, 2015, str. 35. Back

24 Czech publication: MUDr. Bohuslav Handl: Včelí produkty v lékařství: Jejich význam při léčení nemocí nervových, žaludečních, reumatických, srdečních, kožních, jater, žlučníku, astma, sklerose aj.; Blansko: Základní organizace včelařů a zdravotní osvěta, 1971, str. 6. Back

25 Czech publication: MUDr. Bohuslav Handl: Včelí produkty v lékařství: Jejich význam při léčení nemocí nervových, žaludečních, reumatických, srdečních, kožních, jater, žlučníku, astma, sklerose aj.; Blansko: Základní organizace včelařů a zdravotní osvěta, 1971, str. 5 - 6. Back

26 Czech publication: MUDr. Jan Šmíd: Včelí produkty ve výživě a lékařství; Liberec, 1968, str. 8. Back

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